The effects of uranium mining on the environment
In situ mining environmental impacts
Modeling can be used to make estimates of the extent of particle transport under typical wind speeds and direction, as well under extreme weather conditions. Similar experiences occurred in the Athabasca region of Saskatchewan, Canada, associated with mining of the Gunnar uranium deposit in the vicinity of Langley Bay from to To complicate these issues further, historically in the United States and around the globe the negative impacts of Uranium mining have fallen disproportionately on low income and minority communities. To enable a mine to be worked, groundwater needs to be prevented from entering the mine or removed in a process known as dewatering. Australian Greens are fast losing the optimism they felt when the Labor party won the last election. The relative increase in runoff would also cause increases in stream discharge in downstream receiving waters, although the percentage increase would be reduced with distance from the mines. These are toxic for hundreds of thousands of years. Piestrynski, A. However, exposure to particulate matter can also lead to increased asthma, as documented by increased visits to emergency rooms, and even to death from heart or lung disease Pope et al.
The extent of these reactions, and therefore the chemical composition of the water, depends on a number of geochemical and hydrogeological factors including but not limited to the mineralogy of the host rock, the mineral grain size, the chemical composition of the water passing through the aquifer, the residence time of the water in the aquifer, and flow pathways e.
Soil compaction resulting from the use of heavy, earth-grading equipment during the reclamation process dramatically reduces soil infiltration capacity and increases storm runoff.
In such an ideal modern facility, fugitive emissions will be monitored and largely captured and not released into the environment. In contrast to Rum Jungle, the Caldas mine utilized modern tailings and wastewater treatment facilities to collect and treat AMD from the waste rock piles as well as the acidic tailings; liquid and solid tailings were neutralized to pH 9 using calcium carbonate CaCO3 and lime CaO before being discharged to the tailings facility for solid deposition.
What are the economic impacts of uranium
Additionally, because of mine construction disturbance to the aquifer, local groundwater flow patterns may be permanently altered, which could affect water supply for nearby domestic supply wells, although this effect is likely to be minor overall. General Mining-Related Concerns During construction, exhaust from construction equipment, soil entrainment, and fugitive dusts will be generated, as at any construction site. Mine dewatering activities have the potential to affect surface water quality, particularly if the discharge is not treated. To meet water quality standards, modern dewatering of uranium mines would provide for waste-water treatment prior to any release off-site. This will increase production capacity to , tonnes of copper, tonnes of uranium and , ounces of gold. Active hydraulic isolation, similar to mine dewatering, uses a series of actively pumped wells to lower the local water table and maintain groundwater flow into rather than through or out of the tailings. Sebesta, F. However, no effects on growth or survival Correa et al. Glombitza, F. Although the Coles Hill deposit has been reported to be relatively low in sulfide minerals, this may not be the case for all uranium ore deposits in Virginia.
Energy Information Administration Nuclear is an efficient and powerful energy source with life cycle carbon emissions that are as low as some renewable sources. Perez Estevez, C. Many of these effects are similar to those encountered in other types of mining, although there are some unique risks posed by uranium mining and processing due to the presence of radioactive substances, and co-occurring chemicals such as heavy metals.
Google Scholar The exposure pathways are the same for people and for ecological resources, but different pathways are dominant. However, to determine off-site human health and environmental exposure potential from dust and particle-associated contaminantsmeteorological modeling is essential.
Uranium mining waste
Leakage of lower pH, oxygenated water from an unconfined upper aquifer into higher pH anoxic water in a lower confined aquifer through multiaquifer wells has been implicated as the primary cause for elevated uranium concentrations in a public supply well in York, Nebraska Clark et al. The extent of lowering of the water table is related to the volumetric rate of water withdrawn, aquifer permeability, and area ground-water recharge features e. Pressyanov, D. Modern mitigation techniques for waste rock disposal would also include 1 careful siting of waste rock piles and construction of drainage ditches to facilitate collection of leachates; 2 isolation and burial of waste rock with high potential for contamination in low permeability strata to minimize interactions with water and air; and 3 if warranted, chemical treatment of drainage water collected from waste rock piles. To protect groundwater quality, it is common practice for exploratory boreholes not completed as wells to be plugged with an acceptable material and abandoned, and Virginia exploration licenses typically require description of these actions by the applicant. Full belowgrade disposal of mill tailings Figure 6. Mines are located in proximity to the starred location in the left-center portion of the figure. This is how safe the mine in fact is — and you won't find such records at African mines: almost 15, litres of acid uranium solution leaked in a incident, and since then further leaks ranging from 50 to over 23, litres have been reported. However, there are no data that document the long-term performance of these mitigation features. As an example, for a year, hour event in Virginia that produces 6. The extent of these reactions, and therefore the chemical composition of the water, depends on a number of geochemical and hydrogeological factors including but not limited to the mineralogy of the host rock, the mineral grain size, the chemical composition of the water passing through the aquifer, the residence time of the water in the aquifer, and flow pathways e.
These effects are frequently limited to the local vicinity of the borehole itself.
based on 13 review